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The Environment Problem on PVC

2013-5-8 15:29:36 Hits:2423

The Environment Problem on PVC
The world construction industry consumes plastic approximately more than 10 million tons every year, accounting for 1/4 of the world plastic gross output and the first place in the application plastic. The plastic with the cement, the steel products, and the lumber has been thought together as four big building materials. The reason why the building material develops rapid, besides fine performance itself, is that people's consciousness of protecting the ecological environment enhances and the country carries on our protection policy to forest resources, land resource as well as water resources. The application and promotion of construction plastic, although receiving the design, production department's value and user's favor, but at the same time, we cannot ignore that PVC in the process of production and use does harm to environment and human body health. In recent years, PVC always became the focus that the people argued. From the science, technology and economy, people have the different viewpoint for PVC' influence on human body health and environment. On the basis of science we should generally analyze PVC's life cycle, each kind of environment question, including influence on human body health.

1.PVC Material
The polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) is one kind of polymerization material (or resin). It is superimposed by CH2-CHCI monomer chloroethylene (VCM) many times. Besides containing the chlorine, PVC and the polyethylene have the same structure. The chlorine in PVC occupies 57% of the pure polymerization resin, while 35% chlorine comes from the chloral trichloroacetaldehyde potassium electrolysis.

Pure PVC is the granulated material with mechanical degree of high hardness and extremely good guard against climatic change, water, chemical material performance as well as electricity. But heat and light make PVC become unstable. Heating up and ultraviolet light cause the chlorine in the Hydrogen chloride to lose. This might add the stabilizer to avoid. The stabilizer is usually composed by the metal salt like lead, barium, calcium, cadmium or organo-tin compound.

The PVC physical characteristics may change through low-molecular weight compound's mixture in the polymer matrix. This kind of matter is called the plasticizer. This kind of plastic material is the organic salt, mainly the phthalic acid salt and the oxalic acid. It is used in rigid PVC (2/3 of total amount) and flexible PVC (1/3 of total amount).

2 . PVC compound production process
PVC mainly has two production processes, VCM aerosol polymer (80%) and emulsified polymer (10%): if from ethylene and chlorine, or ethylene and Hydrogen chloride to produce VCM, it is a seal industrialization production process, discharging chlorine, ethylene, dechlorinate ethylene, HCL, VCM and siding product with chlorine including dioxin into working conditions and external environment like air and water. These chemical substances is deleterious substance.

Primitive PVC before becoming final product must join additive called PVC compound. The PVC is one kind of thermoplastic material . That is to say, PVC can be able to form many shapes through heating up and dissolving. After cooling, material demonstrates its primitive characteristic. Using this principle PVC is transformed through massive different methods, like squeezing out, wheel-pressure, pouring into founding, blowing shape, revolving shape, hotly losing shape and blowing membrane and so on.

 And in the period of further transformation and synthesis, some deleterious substances discharge and make workers contact. The PVC powder and synthesis of chemical additive (by powder or liquid) usually carry on in the seal equipment. When workers in the mixer receive this kind of contact, after the long time it do harm to human's health.
PVC in the process of heating up, formation and cooling has over-heat situation, discharging some degradable compound. HCL is one kind of the most important ones in these compounds. Although these are very few, they have certain negative effect on environment.

3 . Chemical additive's scope and type
The most important type in the additives is stabilizer, which needs scientifically to analyze its dangerous characteristic and influence on human body health and environment, specially heavy metal like lead, cadmium and plasticizer like phthalic acid salt.
(1)l ead stabilizer
The lead -salt stabilizer is heat-stabilizer applied in plastic with cheap price and fine performance. It is widely used in the PVC product. But because lead is heavy metal and harmful to human body, under consideration of hygienic and environmental protection, from 2000 European country such as Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and England adopt one after another action to forbid lead -salt stabilizer. At present, the lead pollution had been discovered in the PVC plastic water pipe, which mainly comes from lead -salt stabilizer widely used in the PVC plastic for water pipe. The heavy metal lead inside lead -salt stabilizer can be able to separate out from pipeline, causing pollution to water directly. At present the plastic pipe with lead-salt already have been thought by various countries as main material with lead. The national and Beijing Construction Department already stipulated that, from this year April 1, 2005, the lead salt is used as stabilizer in the PVC plastic tubing and fitting. Until this year on October 1, 2005, it comprehensively will be stopped to use in the stipulation scope. If used in the plastic running water pipeline with lead, it could cause in the water directly lead pollution.
Some families and in public place uses kinds of color paint and coating with heavy metal. In the room each kind of decorations, tail gas from cars entering into ventilating room near road, even waste gas which some factories discharges to enter into room, possibly cause lead pollution to air inside room. At present, there are some PVC plastic material in the interior decoration, for instance PVC windows and doors material, kitchen or bathroom suspended ceiling material and so on. The expert forecast that, along with people's further understanding to lead-salt pollution, other's PVC products used lead-salt as stabilizer similarly face that lead is forbidden. The PVC plastic for interior decoration should not include lead similarly.

(2)Cadmium stabilizer
The cadmium stabilizer, fettered under the running condition in PVC, cannot make human body contact, but possibly cause pollution to environment in the production process and waste treatment. In the process of burning down PVC and other waste, all cadmium will exist in the residual and the ash. As a result of heavy metal, dust and residual, environment and biology is possibly destroyed.

(3)organic-tin compound
All kinds of organic-tin compound, specially single and double organic-tin compound's mixture used as stabilizer, most of which are used in the pellet of packing thin film, the bottle, gores and lining mass. The data for organic-tin compound served as PVC stabilizer display two-octyl tin for the immunity system is virulent evil. This kind of immunity poisonous effect to other's organic-tin compound served as PVC stabilizer has not certainly observed, (tin dimethyl, lauryl tin, phthalic acid tin), two-octyl tin for water environment compound runs a risks on environment.

The plasticizer for the flexible PVC product's production is extremely essential. Every year about one million tons phthalic acid salts are produced in Western Europe , 900000 tons of which are served as the PVC plasticizer. In 1997, 93% of PVC plasticizer was phthalic acid salt, DEHP, DIDP and DINP of which commonly is used. The phthalic acid salt is chemical of high yield. Because of possible risk in human body and environment, DEHP, DINP and DIDP have the possible living thing of accumulation. The long-chain phthalic acid salt has low living thing of accumulation under normal processing. This kind of accumulation exist in suspended particle, but still possibly had influence on environment and biology which could not be expected.

Because of massive using of phthalic acid salt in PVC application, the influence on global environment exists everywhere. It seems that proliferation in theatmospheric and leakage in certain application are main way to enter into environment. The highly concentrated phthalic acid salt mostly exists in settling and sludge.

Because flexible PVC is used in toy and for children, the risk of the phthalic acid salt, which possibly created to children, has made analysis by the Ecology and Environmental Science Committee (CSTEE). When baby suction, the phthalic acidsalt seeped out toxicity from toy and other children thing. The Ecology and Environmental Science Committee expressed when child use products above, the contact with two kind of phthalic acid salts (DINP and DEHP) caused possibly negative effect on liver, kidney and testicle.

The Swiss government had already passed through a proposal "Switzerland Environment Quality Goal", whose aim to reduce usage of main phthalic acid salt-DEHP. The Germany government has used motion plan to reduce 50% phthalic acid salt in next ten years. The flexible PVC's durability also has been analyzed by Germany . Because flexible matter, especially phthalic acid salt, continue in the environment to lose, it is decided under the condition of secure substitute to reduce usage of flexible PVC gradually.

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